Africa Review

Africa Review-Africa land

Africa is the  second largest continent in the world after Asia. With an area of ​​30, 221, 532 sq. Km, it accounts for 20.3% of the total land cover. The width of the continent is about 8000 km from the north to the south and its length is about 7400 km from the east to the west. Africa, with more than a billion inhabitants (according to 2005 statistics), has 61 countries in the world with about one-seventh of the world’s population.

The continent is bounded from the north to the Mediterranean Sea, from the north-east to the Suez Canal and the Red Sea, from the east to the Gulf of Aden, from the south east to the Indian Ocean, and from the west to the Atlantic Ocean.

Africa is located on either side of the equator, and covers several climatic zones; Africa is the only continent that stretches from the northern temperate to the southern temperate. Due to the lack of regular natural irrigation and irrigation, as well as to the absence of mass systems of ice or underground aquifers, there is no natural temperate effect on the climate, except near the coast. In the center of Africa (Near-Stowe), it’s about half a year of rainy weather that is hot and humid, creating beautiful forests that do not last more than a half-year, because after this rainy season, the hard and hard heat of the entire area is learned. And no beast has it, and so for some time, the forests become desert, dry, and grass (the other half is warm and dry, which generates a total of 2 seasons).

Although European speculation about the nature of the Ethiopian desert in South Africa dates back more than two thousand years ago, Africa is considered to be the oldest continent inhabited by humans.

Geography africa.

The largest of Africa is Algeria and the smallest region of the Seychelles is in the Indian Ocean. The smallest country is the Gambia. [3]

The northernmost point of Africa is the Guran Cape (in Tunisia), the southernmost point of the Agulhas Nouveau (in South Africa), the easternmost point of the Guadeloupe Mountain (in Somalia) and the westernmost tip of the Almadi (in the Cape of Greenland).

Africa’s climate from the tropical climate The tallest to the highest level fluctuates. In the northern region, there are mainly desert or wilderness areas, while the central or southern regions include warm (tropical) plains and very dense rainforest areas. However, there are two types of convergence in vegetation patterns such as shore and steppe.

Politics.

To a large extent, due to the effects of colonialism, corrupt governments and tyranny, Africa is the poorest residential continent in the world. According to the United Nations Human Development Report in 2003, the 25 countries below the country table (from 151 to 175) were all African countries.

While fast growing in China and now in India, as well as the medium-term growth in Latin America, are millions (more than one) beyond life, Africa has had a declining trend in terms of trade, foreign investment, and per capita income. This poverty has expanded its effects, including low life expectancy, tension, and instability, which are factors contributing to the continent’s poverty.

Some areas, especially Botswana and South Africa, have experienced economic success, including the opening of the Johannesburg stock market. This is partly due to the wealth of their natural resources as the major producer of gold and diamonds, partly due to its proper legal system. South Africa has also achieved financial strength, multiple markets, skilled work, and the first infrastructure in most (parts of) its own country. Countries like Ghana, Kenya, Cameroon and Egypt are other African countries with comparable developments.

Nigeria is one of the world’s largest proven oil reserves and, while having one of the fastest growing economies in the world, has the most populations among African countries.

From 1995 to 2005, economic growth peaked at an average of 5% in 2005. But some countries have had more economic growth (+ 10%), especially Angola, Sudan and Equatorial Guinea, where the last three countries have started to extract their oil reserves recently.

Tongue.

The dispersion of African-Asian languages ​​extends from coast to southwest Africa. The languages ​​of Niger-Congo are divided to reflect the greatness of the languages ​​of the Bantu family.

According to most estimates, Africa has a total of over 1000 languages, some of which have been numbered more than two dozen (more African than European). Africa is the largest multilingual continent in the world; it’s not uncommon to find people who speak psychologically not only in different African languages ​​but also in one or two European languages.There are mainly four indigenous native languages ​​in Africa

African culture.

Africa’s culture is characterized  by a fully integrated social values ​​system, known through historical processes that supports its social organization. The most interesting feature of African culture is the almost identical nature of a pseudo-African language, in which non-verbal elements communicate in order to transform concepts and conveys feelings. Like the Southern Europeans, Africans are more discriminating, warm and committed. This pseudo-African language is rooted in a series of historical relationships and ancient spiritual beliefs that have flourished in generation, language, politics, as well as tragedies of slavery and colonialism in Africa.

African linguistic dialects and fundamental social breaths are easily recognizable and rooted in a strong and deeply rooted ancient philosophy that even in the face of widespread socio-political changes and the geopolitics resulting from the change in population diagrams, they require continuity and excellence.

The modern African culture is emerging through complex responses to Arab imperialism and European imperialism. At the beginning of the late 1990s, Africans increasingly wanted to reiterate their identity. In particular, in North Africa, refusing to accept Arabic or European tagging has led to a kind of overflow of demands to protect the languages ​​and indigenous culture of the Amazing in Morocco, Egypt, Algeria and Tunisia. The emergence (belief) of all-Africanism since the fall of apartheid has increased the demands for a resurgent sense of African identity. In South Africa, the intellectuals of the community of European descendants have increasingly become African identities for cultural reasons, geographically or racially. It is known that some people performed religious ceremonies to become members of the Zulu or other communities.

Religion.

Africans offer a wide range of religious beliefs  , while Christianity and Islam are the most common. Approximately 46.3% of all Africans are Christians and 40.5% of them are Muslims. About 11.8% of Africans are mostly native African peoples. Few Africans are Hindus, or Believers of Judaism Jewish tradition. Examples of African-American Jews are Beta-Israel, Lamb, and Abidonia in eastern Uganda.

The indigenous religions of the sub-Saharan Africa revolve around the animistic and ancestral worship axes. Common threat to traditional belief systems is the division of the spiritual world into two “useful” and harmful parts. Useful Ghosts Ghosts are usually spirits that include ancestral spirits that help their descendants, and powerful spirits protecting all communities against natural disasters and attacks by enemies, while harmful spirits cover the souls of the victims, without the Funeral | Funeral burials are buried, and these ghosts by the violent (evil) spirit as the mediator (spiritual) | Mediators cause disease among their enemies. While the influence of these primitive forms of worship persists to have a profound effect, belief systems have evolved while interacting with other religions.

The formation of the ancient Egyptian territory in the third millennium BC is the first complex and well-known religious system in the continent. About 9th Century BC, Carthage (in modern Tunisia) was founded by the Phoenicians, and continued to become the main multinational center in which Goddess | Goddesses in the Neighborhood of Egypt, Ancient Rome Rome and the Etruscan civilization Territories – the city of Otruscan was worshiped. Today, many Jews live in North Africa, especially in Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco.

The Ethiopian Orthodox Church and the Eritrean Orthodox Church are officially dating back to the fourth century AD, and thus one of the first Christian-made churches | Christian in the whole world. Initially, Christian Orthodox Branch was prevalent in modern Sudan and other neighboring regions. But, after the spread of Islam, it grew and was limited to the lands of the highlands.

Islam conquered North Africa between 640 and 710 by Muslims entering the continent, which began in Egypt. They set up maritime trade on the East African coast, the cities of Meghadishu, Nimand, Membasa, Kilwa, and Cephal, and crossed the Sahara Desert within Africa – especially following the paths for Muslim trade. Muslims were also among the Asian peoples who later settled in Africa under the British rule.

Many sub-Saharan Africans converted to Western European forms of colonialism during the colonial period. In the late decades of the twentieth century, various sects of the fascist Christianity movement grew rapidly. A number of African Catholic bishops, even as probable Pope nominees Papi was in 2005. Apparently, African Christians are more socially conservative than their own religions in most of the industrialized world, which, in recent times, have tensions between the religious sect | Sections such as the Anglican Union and Methodism .